品种鉴别
美国短毛猫 - American Shorthair Breed Profile

美国短毛猫素以体格魁伟,骨胳粗壮,肌肉发达,生性聪明,温顺而著称,是短毛猫类中大型品种。该猫被毛厚密,毛色多达30余种,其中银色条纹品种尤为名贵

历史故事 提到美国短毛猫的历史,就不得不提到“五月花”号。
1620年的秋天,一条本用来捕鱼的小船悄然离开了英国港口,驶向了大洋彼岸——它就是“五月花”号。事实上,当他们离开港口时,许多老水手都怀疑这条只有27米长的木头帆船是否能顺利到达彼岸。船上一共有102人,一些必需品和十几只猫。终于经过了三个多月的海上艰难挣扎,他们来到了一个安静的港湾,那里有很多鱼虾,海岸不远就是一座小山,山间泉水叮咚。这一切的一切,就像是上帝为他们安排好的,“五月花”号上的人们不停地在胸口画着十字,感谢上帝对他们的恩赐。1621年11月的第4个星期四,他们举行一场盛大的庆祝会,庆祝他们的丰收,同时对上帝和帮助他们的人表示感谢。后来,这个庆祝会固定下来,每年举行,称为感恩节。从这以后,“五月花”号上的人们开始在这片土地上安居乐业,在这里开始新生活,以后就有了美国。
而当初船上的那些猫是用来抓老鼠和保护船上的粮食。这些猫随着“五月花”号来到新大陆后,就在北美一带生长。可以说它们见证了美国的发展,是美国的开国功臣之一。最终,经过多年不断的繁殖,终于确立了的北美洲短毛猫种。20世纪初,美国CFA选择了这可爱又勇敢的品种成为其首五个被确认的品种之一。早期它们被称为“短毛家猫”,但为了更有力地代表这种“All American Cat”,在1966年改名为“美国短毛猫”,代表这在北美洲土生的品种,有别于一般在街上随处可见的短毛猫。

发展历程
  在二十世纪初,由于有一些外国的猫品种被介绍到美国, 美国短毛猫的土生血统便开始被削弱,与长毛猫及暹罗猫交配后所得的小猫,有着多种不同长度的被毛,身形,颜色及性情。而那些钟情于土生美国短毛猫的人士,他们唯有开始选择性地繁殖以保留美国短毛猫的特征,早期的繁殖者成功地获得完美的斑纹,颜色,亦保留了强壮的形态,美丽的面孔及可爱的性格。美国CFA选择了这可爱的品种成为其首五个被确认的品种之一。早期被称为短毛家猫,但为了更有力代表这种All American Cat,在一九六六年易名为美国短毛猫~代表这在北美洲土生的品种有别于一般在街上随处可见的短毛猫。而这个新的名字亦停止了人们对美国短毛猫及其它短毛猫的混淆。直至上一个世纪,美国短毛猫在猫展中有着稳定的发展,亦屡获殊荣,包括两只CFA Cat of the Year及一只CFA Kitten of the Year。
美国短毛猫遗传其了祖先的健壮、勇敢和吃苦耐劳,它们的性格温和,不会因为环境或心情的改变而改变。它们总是充满耐性、和蔼可亲,不会乱发脾气,不喜欢乱吵乱叫,十分适合有小孩子的家庭饲养。它们自身的抵抗力很强,很少生病,是发生医疗费用最少的猫。
同样,美短也是十分聪明的猫种,它们虽然不会表演高空接球之类的小把戏,但主人可以教会它们答应自己的名字和远离沙发等家具。你会发现一只居家的美国短毛猫更乐于躺在你的腿上,享受你的爱抚。它们会很珍惜自己的玩具,尤其是主人不在的时候,它们会发明多种不同的玩法,使自己不感到孤单。美国短毛猫很乐于跟其它的动物相处,当中也包括鸟和狗。

外形特征  
       尺寸:大到中等的尺寸。为了尺寸的发展并没有牺牲品质。成年母猫可能没有公 猫的体形结实,但整体平衡是和公猫一样的。
比例:苗条,体长比身高(身高是指从侧面看由肩胛骨的顶部到地面的高度。体长是指从胸骨的顶部到臀后部顶端)长。从侧面看,身体可以被分成三个相等的部分:从胸骨到肘,从肘到后腿的前面,从后腿前面到臀后部的顶端。尾的长度等于从肩胛骨到尾根的长度。
头:大,双颊饱满的脸给人一种椭圆形的印象,脸的长度比宽度略长。表情甜美、开放。从前面看,头可以分为两个相等的部分——从耳根到两眼中间,从两眼中间到下巴尖。
耳朵:中等尺寸,耳尖细圆,在头顶自然分开。两耳间的距离两倍于两眼间的距离。
前额:从侧面看,前额形状光滑,适度的弯曲并延伸至头顶至脖子。从前面看,两耳之间没有明显的突起。
眼睛:大并且睁的很开,上眼睑象半个纵向切开的杏仁,下眼睑的形状为圆形。两眼间至少有一个眼睛的宽度。外眼角位置稍微比内眼角高。眼神明亮、清晰和警觉。
鼻子:中等长度,长宽相等。从侧面看,鼻梁到额头有一个柔和的曲线相连。
口鼻:成正方形,成熟的公猫鄂骨轮廓清晰分明。
鄂骨:强壮并且较长,足以咬住任何被捉到的东西。水平咬合与剪刀咬合都很出色(水平咬合是指上下牙平坦相接触,剪刀咬合是指上牙内牙锋碰到下牙外牙锋)
下巴:强壮有力,发育良好,与上唇垂直成一条直线。
脖子:长度适中,肌肉发达强状。
身体:健壮结实,强壮有力,肌肉发达,发育良好的双肩、胸和后腿。后背宽平且直。从侧面看,从臀骨到尾根略有倾斜,从上面看,身体两侧成一对平行线。
腿:骨格和长度适中,肌肉发达,从后面看,四条腿很直并和爪面外沿成平行。
爪子:结实、饱满呈圆形,有着厚厚的爪垫,趾:前五后四。
尾:中等长度,根部粗壮,尾尖看起来是突然变细的,但是尾椎骨尖部却是正常变细。
被毛:短、厚,质地硬滑,被毛厚度因地区和季节变化是允许的。被毛的密度足以保证身体不受受温度湿度的影响和保护表面皮肤不受外界伤害。
缺陷:腿过分的靠拢或分开,过短的尾。
不合格:猫的颜色显示出明显的与其它品种杂交的迹象,如巧克力色,黑貂色,薰衣草色,丁香色(似乎都是淡紫色),还有受限制的重点色(如暹罗猫的斑纹)。明显表现出其它任何品种杂交所产生的包括长和柔软的毛,鼻梁象波斯或异短那样深深的“断开”,凸出的眼睛位置和眉骨。打结和不正常的尾,不正常数量的趾数。咬合不正常(下鄂突出或上鄂突出),舌头伸在口外回不去。过胖或过瘦,看起来因养育不好而过分的虚弱

性格特点
  美国短毛猫遗传其了祖先的健壮、勇敢和吃苦耐劳,它们的性格温和,不会因为环境或心情的改变而改变。它们总是充满耐性、和蔼可亲,不会乱发脾气,不喜欢乱吵乱叫,十分适合有小孩子的家庭饲养。它们自身的抵抗力很强,很少生病,是发生医疗费用最少的猫。
同样,美短也是十分聪明的猫种,它们虽然不会表演高空接球之类的小把戏,但主人可以教会它们答应自己的名字和远离沙发等家具。你会发现一只居家的美国短毛猫更乐于躺在你的腿上,享受你的爱抚。它们会很珍惜自己的玩具,尤其是主人不在的时候,它们会发明多种不同的玩法,使自己不感到孤单。美国短毛猫很乐于跟其他的动物相处,当中也包括鸟和狗。


About the American Shorthair

Looking for a cat that will be a gentle companion, a playmate for your children, and a full-fledged member of the family? Look no further than the American Shorthair. This breed is known for its longevity, robust health, good looks, sweet personality, and amiability with children, dogs, and other pets.

The American Shorthair breed originated from cats following settlers from Europe to North America. Records indicate that even the Mayflower carried several cats to hunt the ship’s rats. For centuries, “working cats” flourished along with their pioneer owners and eventually established themselves as the native North American shorthaired cat. Their beauty and loving nature came to be valued as much as their rat-catching skills.

Late in the 19th century, there was an interest in developing and showing a shorthair cat representative of the North American working cat. One brown tabby American Shorthair was even offered for sale for $2,500 at the Second Annual Cat Show at Madison Square Garden in 1896. The Cat Fanciers’ Association (CFA) chose to officially recognize this lovely cat (then called the Domestic Shorthair) as one of its first five registered breeds in 1906.

Breeders selectively bred North American shorthaired cats by acquiring the finest examples to preserve the all-around working cat’s structure and to refine the beautiful face, the easygoing disposition, and the striking colors present in today’s breed. The breed was renamed “American Shorthair” in 1966 to better represent its “All American” character and to distinguish it from other shorthaired breeds. The name also reinforced that this purpose-bred breed is different from random-bred cats that may be found in streets, neighborhoods, and barnyards today.

By chance, a non-pedigreed shorthair cat might resemble an American Shorthair, just as another random-bred cat might look like a Siamese, Persian, or Maine Coon. The difference, however, is that a pedigreed cat can consistently produce kittens of the same physical conformation, coat quality, and temperament, while a random-bred cat cannot. Years of selective breeding and the careful recording of many generations of cats guarantee that each litter of kittens will have specific qualities.

As pets or for showing, American Shorthairs are low-maintenance cats. These cats are not only beautiful, but healthy, easygoing, and affectionate. Males are usually larger than females, averaging 11 to 15 pounds, while females may weigh 6 to 12 pounds. American Shorthairs often continue to grow until 3 or 4 yeard old and generally require only annual vaccinations and veterinary checkups. With a quality diet and plenty of tender loving care, they can live 15 years or longer. No wonder the American Shorthair is one of the most popular cat breeds!

Usually breeders make kittens available between 12 and 16 weeks of age. After twelve weeks, kittens have had their basic vaccinations and have the physical and social stability needed to for a new home, showing, or being transported by air. Keeping such a rare treasure indoors, neutering or spaying, and providing acceptable surfaces (e.g. scratching posts) for the natural behavior of scratching (CFA discourages declawing or tendonectomy surgery) are essential elements for maintaining a healthy, long, and joyful life. For more information, please contact the Breed Council Secretary for this breed.

 
 
PRCC © 版权所有 2022   粤ICP备13022635号